Brachytherapy Results for Low- and Intermediate-risk Prostate Cancer Treated at Mayo Clinic

According to a retrospective study published this month in the journal Brachytherapy,  permanent low-dose-rate (LDR)  prostate brachytherapy monotherapy with I-125 has worked well for men with low-and intermediate-risk prostate cancer.

Investigating outcomes for a series of 974 patients treated at the Mayo with this type of permanent “seed” implant brachytherapy  analysts focused on factors associated with biochemical failure and survival. Continue reading “Brachytherapy Results for Low- and Intermediate-risk Prostate Cancer Treated at Mayo Clinic”

Shorter Androgen Blockade for High-Risk Prostate Cancer Patients Treated with Radiotherapy: Trial Results

Reducing ADT from 36 to 18 months Improves Quality of Life, Does Not Reduce Survival

A randomized Phase III Trial of outcomes for high-risk prostate cancer patients treated with radiotherapy and either 36 or 18 months of androgen deprivation therapy has found “no difference in survival between the two groups, with the 18-month group experiencing a better quality of life.”

Survival and biochemical failure rates between 36 months and 18 months of ADT combined with Radiotherapy for men with high-risk prostate. cancer ).

Continue reading “Shorter Androgen Blockade for High-Risk Prostate Cancer Patients Treated with Radiotherapy: Trial Results”

A Possible Cause of Resistance to Antiandrogen Treatment for Advanced Prostate Cancer Identified

Analysis of androgen receptor patterns also uncovers a new therapeutic target for advanced disease

A team of researchers in the USA and China led by Dr. Dean Tang at New York State’s Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center has examined androgen receptor (AR) expression patterns in 89 patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer.  Dr. Tang’s team has linked the development of castration-resistant prostate cancer and treatment resistance to a lack of androgen receptor (AR) expression in prostate cancer cells.

The team has also identified a new therapeutic target for advanced prostate cancer. Results of their study appeared September 6 in the journal Nature Communications.

Further research confirmed that cells lacking AR did not respond to treatment with enzalutamide (brand name Xtandi). The researchers report new evidence that combination treatment with enzalutamide  and ABT-199 (brand name Venetoclax), a newly FDA-approved BCL-2 inhibitor, markedly inhibits experimental castrate-resistant prostate cancer. Roswell Park’s Dr. Dean Tang has initiated a phase Ib/II clinical trial based on these findings.

The new findings identify 3 distinct patterns of androgen receptor (AR) expression. AR, a key driver of prostate cancer, is a protein that binds to male hormones. As a way to overcome treatment resistance, the team investigated targeting the protein BCL-2.

Dr. Dean Tang
Dean Tang, MD PhD, Roswell Park researcher.

Continue reading “A Possible Cause of Resistance to Antiandrogen Treatment for Advanced Prostate Cancer Identified”

Androgen-deprivation therapy before radical surgery for prostate cancer may harm a subset of patients, help others, study suggests

A study from Japan suggests that men should probably avoid androgen blockade before prostate surgery if they are above 65 or have low testosterone levels.

This round of treatment, known as neoadjuvant ADT, may be prescribed with a view to improving odds for patients who have some adverse markers.

Led by  Prof. Masatoshi Eto, the Japanese team analyzed results for 711 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer who were treated with radical prostatectomy (RP) between 2000 and 2013. Some patients underwent androgen deprivation therapy before the surgery, some did not. Continue reading “Androgen-deprivation therapy before radical surgery for prostate cancer may harm a subset of patients, help others, study suggests”

Viewing Cancer Treatment as a Game to Find Strategies That Improve Patient Outcomes

Game theory-wise treatment plans to advance the standard of care include  men with advanced prostate cancer

August 9. 2018. Game theory can be used to identify potential flaws in current cancer treatment approaches and to select new strategies to improve outcomes in patients with metastatic cancer, according to a review study published online today, August 9, in JAMA Oncology.

Authored by a mathematician, an evolutionary biologist, and clinical physicians from the Moffitt Cancer Center and Maastricht University in the Netherlands, the study challenges decades-old methods. The usual method of treating metastatic cancer involves repeatedly administering the same drug(s) until disease progression. The drugs are given according to Maximum Tolerated Dose (MTD), i.e. the highest dose of a drug or treatment that does not cause intolerable side effects. The maximum tolerated dose is decided via clinical trials by testing increasing doses on different groups of people until the highest dose with acceptable side effects is found.

“Current treatments for metastatic cancers, by giving the same drug repeatedly at the maximum tolerated dose, can inadvertently increase the speed with which cancer cells can evolve effective counter measures and then regrow,” said Robert A. Gatenby, M.D., co-director of Moffitt’s Center of Excellence in Evolutionary Therapy, one of the leaders of this new line of research. Continue reading “Viewing Cancer Treatment as a Game to Find Strategies That Improve Patient Outcomes”